12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Glipizide primarily lowers blood glucose by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas, an effect dependent upon functioning beta cells in the pancreatic islets. Sulfonylureas bind to the sulfonylurea receptor in the pancreatic beta-cell plasma membrane, leading to closure of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel, thereby stimulating the release of insulin.
The insulinotropic response to a meal is enhanced with GLUCOTROL XL administration in diabetic patients. The postprandial insulin and C-peptide responses continue to be enhanced after at least 6 months of treatment. In two randomized, double-blind, dose-response studies comprising a total of 347 patients, there was no significant increase in fasting insulin in all GLUCOTROL XL-treated patients combined compared to placebo, although minor elevations were observed at some doses.
In studies of GLUCOTROL XL in subjects with type 2 diabete mellitus, once daily administration produced reductions in hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose and postprandial glucose. The relationship between dose and reduction in hemoglobin A1c was not established, however subjects treated with 20 mg had a greater reduction in fasting plasma glucose compared to subjects treated with 5 mg.
The absolute bioavailability of glipizide was 100% after single oral doses in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Beginning 2 to 3 hours after administration of GLUCOTROL XL, plasma drug concentrations gradually rise reaching maximum concentrations within 6 to 12 hours after dosing. With subsequent once daily dosing of GLUCOTROL XL, plasma glipizide concentrations are maintained throughout the 24 hour dosing interval with less peak to trough fluctuation than that observed with twice daily dosing of immediate release glipizide.
The mean relative bioavailability of glipizide in 21 males with type 2 diabetes mellitus after administration of 20 mg GLUCOTROL XL, compared to immediate release Glucotrol (10 mg given twice daily), was 90% at steady-state. Steady-state plasma concentrations were achieved by at least the fifth day of dosing with GLUCOTROL XL in 21 males with type 2 diabetes mellitus and patients younger than 65 years. No accumulation of drug was observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus during chronic dosing with GLUCOTROL XL.
Administration of GLUCOTROL XL with food has no effect on the 2 to 3 hour lag time in drug absorption. In a single dose, food effect study in 21 healthy male subjects, the administration of GLUCOTROL XL immediately before a high fat breakfast resulted in a 40% increase in the glipizide mean Cmax value, which was significant, but the effect on the AUC was not significant. There was no change in glucose response between the fed and fasting state. Markedly reduced GI retention times of the GLUCOTROL XL tablets over prolonged periods (e.g., short bowel syndrome) may influence the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug and potentially result in lower plasma concentrations.
In a multiple dose study in 26 males with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the pharmacokinetics of glipizide were linear with GLUCOTROL XL in that the plasma drug concentrations increased proportionately with dose. In a single dose study in 24 healthy subjects, four 5-mg, two 10-mg, and one 20-mg GLUCOTROL XL tablets were bioequivalent. In a separate single dose study in 36 healthy subjects, four 2.5-mg GLUCOTROL XL tablets were bioequivalent to one 10-mg GLUCOTROL XL tablet.
The mean volume of distribution was approximately 10 liters after single intravenous doses in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glipizide is 98–99% bound to serum proteins, primarily to albumin.
The major metabolites of glipizide are products of aromatic hydroxylation and have no hypoglycemic activity. A minor metabolite, an acetylamino-ethyl benzene derivative, which accounts for less than 2% of a dose, is reported to have 1/10 to 1/3 as much hypoglycemic activity as the parent compound.
Glipizide is eliminated primarily by hepatic biotransformation: less than 10% of a dose is excreted as unchanged drug in urine and feces; approximately 90% of a dose is excreted as biotransformation products in urine (80%) and feces (10%).
The mean total body clearance of glipizide was approximately 3 liters per hour after single intravenous doses in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mean terminal elimination half-life of glipizide ranged from 2 to 5 hours after single or multiple doses in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Studies characterizing the pharmacokinetics of glipizide in pediatric patients have not been performed.
There were no differences in the pharmacokinetics of glipizide after single dose administration to older diabetic subjects compared to younger healthy subjects [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
The pharmacokinetics of glipizide has not been evaluated in patients with varying degree of renal impairment. Limited data indicates that glipizide biotransformation products may remain in circulation for a longer time in subjects with renal impairment than that seen in subjects with normal renal function.
A potential interaction between oral miconazole and oral glipizide leading to severe hypoglycemia has been reported. Whether this interaction also occurs with the intravenous, topical, or vaginal preparations of miconazole is not known [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].
Concomitant treatment with fluconazole increases plasma concentrations of glipizide. The effect of concomitant administration of Diflucan® (fluconazole) and Glucotrol has been demonstrated in a placebo controlled crossover study in healthy volunteers. All subjects received Glucotrol alone and following treatment with 100 mg of Diflucan® as a single daily oral dose for 7 days. The mean percentage increase in the glipizide AUC after fluconazole administration was 56.9% (range: 35 to 81%) [see Drug Interactions (7.3)].
Colesevelam can reduce the maximum plasma concentration and total exposure of glipizide when the two are coadministered. In studies assessing the effect of colesevelam on the pharmacokinetics of glipizide ER in healthy volunteers, reductions in glipizide AUC0–∞ and Cmax of 12% and 13%, respectively were observed when colesevelam was coadministered with glipizide ER. When glipizide ER was administered 4 hours prior to colesevelam, there was no significant change in glipizide AUC0–∞ or Cmax, -4% and 0%, respectively [see Drug Interactions (7.4)].