17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
Advise patients to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
Advise patients taking phenytoin of the importance of adhering strictly to the prescribed dosage regimen, and of informing the physician of any clinical condition in which it is not possible to take the drug orally as prescribed, e.g., surgery, etc.
Instruct patients to use an accurately calibrated measuring device when using this medication to ensure accurate dosing.
Withdrawal of Antiepileptic Drugs
Advise patients not to discontinue use of DILANTIN without consulting with their healthcare provider. DILANTIN should normally be gradually withdrawn to reduce the potential for increased seizure frequency and status epilepticus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Suicidal Ideation and Behavior
Counsel patients, their caregivers, and families that AEDs, including DILANTIN, may increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior and advise them of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behavior, or the emergence of suicidal thoughts, behavior, or thoughts about self-harm. Behaviors of concern should be reported immediately to healthcare providers [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Serious Dermatologic Reactions
Advise patients of the early signs and symptoms of severe cutaneous adverse reactions and to report any occurrence immediately to a physician [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Potential Signs of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) and Other Systemic Reactions
Advise patients of the early toxic signs and symptoms of potential hematologic, dermatologic, hypersensitivity, or hepatic reactions. These symptoms may include, but are not limited to, fever, sore throat, rash, ulcers in the mouth, easy bruising, lymphadenopathy, facial swelling, and petechial or purpuric hemorrhage, and in the case of liver reactions, anorexia, nausea/vomiting, or jaundice. Advise the patient that, because these signs and symptoms may signal a serious reaction, that they must report any occurrence immediately to a physician. In addition, advise the patient that these signs and symptoms should be reported even if mild or when occurring after extended use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.8, 5.9)].
Counsel patients that cases of bradycardia and cardiac arrest have been reported, both at recommended phenytoin doses and levels, and in association with phenytoin toxicity. Patients should report cardiac signs or symptoms to their healthcare provider [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) and Overdosage (10)].
Advise patients to discontinue DILANTIN and seek immediate medical care if they develop signs or symptoms of angioedema, such as facial, perioral, or upper airway swelling [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
Effects of Alcohol Use and Other Drugs and Over-the-Counter Drug Interactions
Inform patients that certain over-the-counter medications (e.g., antacids, cimetidine, and omeprazole), vitamins (e.g., folic acid), and herbal supplements (e.g., St. John's wort) can alter their phenytoin levels.
Advise patients that DILANTIN may cause an increase in blood glucose levels [see Warnings and Precautions (5.15)].
Advise patients of the importance of good dental hygiene in order to minimize the development of gingival hyperplasia and its complications.
Counsel patients that DILANTIN may cause dizziness, gait disturbance, decreased coordination and somnolence. Advise patients taking DILANTIN not to drive, operate complex machinery, or engage in other hazardous activities until they have become accustomed to any such effects associated with DILANTIN.
Use in Pregnancy
Inform pregnant women and women of childbearing potential that use of DILANTIN during pregnancy can cause fetal harm, including an increased risk for cleft lip and/or cleft palate (oral clefts), cardiac defects, dysmorphic skull and facial features, nail and digit hypoplasia, growth abnormalities (including microcephaly), and cognitive deficits. When appropriate, counsel pregnant women and women of childbearing potential about alternative therapeutic options. Advise women of childbearing potential who are not planning a pregnancy to use effective contraception while using DILANTIN, keeping in mind that there is a potential for decreased hormonal contraceptive efficacy [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].
Instruct patients to notify their physician if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during therapy, and to notify their physician if they are breastfeeding or intend to breastfeed during therapy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.2)].
Encourage patients to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry if they become pregnant. This registry is collecting information about the safety of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].